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          地鐵排水系統的常見故障及改進

          來源:http://www.ztkygs.com  發布時間:2022-03-08 15:40:58

          一般情況下,管材的銹蝕多發生在絲口連接處和焊接點,個別情況是管身銹蝕。主要原因是鍍鋅層被破壞引起,次要原因是鍍鋅層厚度不夠。
          In general, the corrosion of pipes mostly occurs at the connection of wire mouth and welding point, and in some cases, the corrosion of pipe body. The main reason is that the zinc coating is damaged, and the secondary reason is that the thickness of the zinc coating is not enough.
          鍍鋅層被破壞的原因主要是施工工藝問題。正確的方法是在套絲結束后應該將絲口處的雜絲清理干凈并刷鉛油,連接管道緊固至剩余兩到三扣時將外露的生料帶清除并刷銀色環氧富鋅漆兩道進行防腐。在連接管道時對管身鍍鋅層破壞的處理方法應該是用銼刀將起皮處銼平,再刷銀色環氧富鋅漆兩道進行防腐。而焊接點的處理方法則是先對焊縫進行打磨,然后在焊縫位置涂紅丹底漆兩道,再刷銀色環氧富鋅漆兩道進行防腐。潛水排污泵堵塞主要發生在水泵吸水口和葉輪這兩個部位。吸水口處堵塞主要是由于有較大粒徑的物體被吸附在進水口處,使水泵空轉而造成的堵塞。像一些編織袋、飲料盒等物品。葉輪處堵塞主要是一些絲狀物纏繞葉輪,導致葉輪轉速降低或不轉。如廢棄的電纜電線、綁扎繩等。
          The main reason for the damage of zinc coating is the construction technology. The correct method is to clean up the miscellaneous wires at the wire mouth after threading and apply lead oil. When the connecting pipe is fastened to the remaining two to three buckles, remove the exposed raw material belt and apply two layers of silver epoxy zinc rich paint for anti-corrosion. When connecting the pipeline, the treatment method for the damage of the galvanized layer of the pipe body should be to file the peeling place with a file, and then brush two layers of silver epoxy zinc rich paint for anti-corrosion. The treatment method of welding points is to polish the weld first, then apply two layers of red lead primer at the weld position, and then brush two layers of silver epoxy zinc rich paint for anti-corrosion. The blockage of submersible sewage pump mainly occurs in the two parts of water pump suction port and impeller. The blockage at the water inlet is mainly caused by the idling of the water pump due to the adsorption of objects with large particle size at the water inlet. Like some woven bags, beverage boxes and other items. The blockage at the impeller is mainly caused by some filaments winding the impeller, resulting in the reduction or non rotation of the impeller speed. Such as abandoned cables, wires, binding ropes, etc.
          解決的方法有兩點:一是嚴抓管理。造成水泵堵塞的物品大多數是施工階段產生的建筑垃圾、運營初期清掃衛生后亂丟亂棄的垃圾以及個人廢棄物。只要嚴格要求施工人員、工作人員做到工完場清、不隨意亂扔垃圾,管理人員嚴格檢查,就可以大大減少水泵堵塞的幾率。
          There are two solutions: one is to pay close attention to management. Most of the items causing the blockage of the water pump are construction waste generated in the construction stage, waste thrown after cleaning in the early stage of operation and personal waste. As long as the construction personnel and staff are strictly required to clean the site after work, do not litter at will, and the management personnel are strictly checked, the probability of water pump blockage can be greatly reduced.
          二是優化設計。在污水池的入口處設計安裝一不銹鋼格網,網格采用 20mm×20mm 規格。通過這一措施,可以將工作人員、乘客失落的物品阻隔在泵池之外,避免了水泵的堵塞。
          The second is to optimize the design. A stainless steel grid is designed and installed at the inlet of the sewage tank, and the grid is 20mm × 20mm specification. Through this measure, the lost items of staff and passengers can be blocked outside the pump pool to avoid the blockage of the water pump.
          如果選用具有切削功能的潛污泵,個人認為既增加了投資,又不能將如此種類繁多的物品“一切了之”,很好的解決問題。只要從以上兩點抓起,就能從根本上解決問題。地鐵投入運營以后,發現排水管路經常出現排水不暢的現象。通過現場察看,發現問題主要集中在管路的揚水管段。
          If the submersible sewage pump with cutting function is selected, I think it not only increases the investment, but also can not "everything" such a wide variety of items, which can well solve the problem. As long as we start from the above two points, we can fundamentally solve the problem. After the subway was put into operation, it was found that the drainage pipeline often had poor drainage. Through on-site observation, it is found that the problems are mainly concentrated in the lifting pipe section of the pipeline.
          地鐵排水泵的設計運行模式采用液位自動控制,即根據水位的高低來決定泵的自動啟停,泵為間歇式運轉。排水管路上的閥門為手動閥門,處于常開狀態。止回閥采用傳統的橡膠瓣止回閥,垂直安裝。
          The design and operation mode of subway drainage pump adopts automatic liquid level control, that is, the automatic start and stop of the pump is determined according to the water level, and the pump operates intermittently. The valve on the drainage pipeline is a manual valve, which is normally open. The check valve adopts the traditional rubber flap check valve and is installed vertically.
          啟停泵的瞬間,造成止回閥的 A、B 兩區分別淤積泥沙雜質。久而久之, 造成止回閥關閉不嚴,上部閥門堵塞。又由于廣州水質含堿量高,淤積在管道內的水沉積結垢,形成厚厚的鈣質堵塞管道(見圖 2)。
          At the moment of starting and stopping the pump, sediment and impurities are deposited in zones A and B of the check valve respectively. Over time, the check valve was not tightly closed and the upper valve was blocked. In addition, due to the high alkali content of water in Guangzhou, the water deposited in the pipeline deposits and scales, forming a thick calcium blocking the pipeline (see Figure 2).
          解決管道堵塞的方法Z好用電動蝶閥取代閘閥,同時嚴格按泵的操作手冊規范作業。即啟泵時先啟動泵,再開閥門;停泵時先關閥門,后停泵。這樣一來,不僅解決了管道堵塞的問題,又減輕了由于排水管路長、高差大,水錘現象較為嚴重的問題。地鐵在無壓力排水系統中采用 UPVC 排水管。該管具有良好的物理化學性能和排水性能、經濟、美觀、管材輕、施工方便等眾多優點,但同時又有其自身不可避免的不足。
          The way to solve the pipeline blockage is to replace the gate valve with electric butterfly valve, and operate in strict accordance with the operation manual of the pump. That is, when starting the pump, start the pump first and then open the valve; When stopping the pump, close the valve first and then stop the pump. In this way, not only the problem of pipeline blockage is solved, but also the problem of serious water hammer due to long drainage pipeline and large height difference is alleviated. The subway adopts UPVC drainage pipe in the pressureless drainage system. The pipe has many advantages, such as good physical and chemical properties and drainage performance, economy, beauty, light pipe, convenient construction and so on, but it also has its own inevitable shortcomings.
          ⑴排水噪聲大:由于 UPVC 排水管內壁較為光滑,水流不易形成水膜沿管壁向下流動,在管道中呈現紊亂狀態撞擊管壁,同時 UPVC 排水管的管壁比同規格的鑄鐵管管壁薄,不利于有效地阻止噪聲向外傳播,給人們的視聽產生不良效果。
          (1) high drainage noise: because the inner wall of UPVC drainage pipe is relatively smooth, the water flow is not easy to form a water film to flow downward along the pipe wall, which presents a disordered state in the pipe and hits the pipe wall. At the same time, the pipe wall of UPVC drainage pipe is thinner than that of cast iron pipe of the same specification, which is not conducive to effectively prevent the outward transmission of noise and produce adverse effects on people's audio-visual.
          ⑵建筑防火問題:目前國內生產的 UPVC 管材雖然難燃,但在火災情況下,一方面會產生致命煙氣,另一方面當溫度超過 90℃時管材容易軟化變形。在穿越樓板時,即使按要求設防火套管和阻火圈,同時進行防火封堵,但由于管材的軟化變形,仍可使火勢、煙霧穿過樓板蔓延。
          (2) building fire prevention: Although the UPVC pipes produced in China are flame-retardant, they will produce fatal smoke on the one hand and soften and deform easily when the temperature exceeds 90 ℃. When crossing the floor slab, even if the fire casing and fire ring are set as required and fireproof sealing is carried out at the same time, the fire and smoke can still spread through the floor slab due to the softening and deformation of the pipe.
          ⑶剛度影響:由于 UPVC 管屬于塑料制品,剛度比鑄鐵管差了很多,在室外施工尤其容易受到破壞。在管道回填時,也常因管道部分架空或遇到堅硬物擠壓而破壞。所以,埋地 UPVC 管要求基底夯實后,管下方有100mm、管上方有 300mm 回填砂,且總埋深不少于900mm。
          (3) stiffness effect: as UPVC pipe is a plastic product, its stiffness is much worse than that of cast iron pipe, so it is particularly vulnerable to damage during outdoor construction. During pipeline backfilling, it is often damaged due to the overhead part of the pipeline or the extrusion of hard objects. Therefore, the buried UPVC pipe requires 100mm below the pipe and 300mm above the pipe to be backfilled with sand after the base is compacted, and the total buried depth shall not be less than 900mm.
           
           
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